Professor Colin Clifford

Professor Colin Clifford

Professor Colin Clifford


PhD, University College London, 1994 - 1996
MSc, Sussex University, 1991 - 1992
MA, Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1985 - 1989

Contact details

Phone: 02 9385 1050
Email: Professor Colin Clifford
Fax: (02) 9385 3641

Office: Mathews 1013

Research Summary

Research Areas: The primary research focus of my laboratory is vision, how context affects our perception, and how our visual awareness might be related to the underlying neural processing. 

Current Research Projects:
Project: Perception of Gaze, Head and Body Direction
Project: Who Are You Expecting? Uncertainty and Bias in High-Level Vision

Research Lab: Clifford Group



Balsdon, T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2017) A bias-minimising measure of the influence of head orientation on perceived gaze direction, Scientific Reports 7, 41685: 1-10.

Balsdon, T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (in press) “Detecting and identifying offset gaze”, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics (accepted 15/5/2017).

Jeffery, L., Burton, N., Pond, S., Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (in press) Beyond opponent coding of facial identity: Evidence for an additional channel tuned to the average face, JEP: HPP (accepted 14/3/2017).

Palmer, C.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (in press) Functional mechanisms encoding others’ direction of gaze in the human nervous system, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (accepted 28/4/2017).

Palmer, C.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2017) “The visual system encodes others’ direction of gaze in a first-person frame of reference”, Cognition 168, 256-266.

Palmer, C.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2017) “Perceived object trajectory is influenced by others’ tracking movements”, Current Biology 27, 2169-2176.

Patten, M.L., Mannion, D.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2017) Correlates of perceptual orientation biases in human primary visual cortex, Journal of Neuroscience 37, 4744-4750.

Vigano, G.J., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2017) Probing the characteristics of colour-motion binding and its dependence on persistent surface segregation, Perception 46, 1027-1047.          


Florey, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Dakin, S. & Mareschal, I. (2016) Spatial limitations in averaging social cues, Scientific Reports 6, 32210: 1-12.

Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, D. (2016) Are you looking at me? How children’s gaze judgments improve with age, Developmental Psychology 52, 695-703.

Otsuka, Y., Ichikawa, H., Clifford, C.W.G., Kanazawa, S. & Yamaguchi, M.K. (2016) Wollaston’s Effect in Infants: Do Infants Integrate Eye and Head Information in Gaze Perception?, Journal of Vision 16(3): 4, 1–8.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2016) Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: linear combination of eye and head cues, Journal of Vision 16(8): 8, 1–12.

Pell, P.J., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J., von dem Hagen, E.A.H., Clifford, C.W.G., Baron-Cohen, S. & Ewbank, M.P. (2016) “Intact priors for gaze direction in autism spectrum conditions”, Molecular Autism 7: 25, 1-10.

Watson, T.L., Otsuka, Y. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2016) Who Are You Expecting? Biases in Face Perception Reveal Prior Expectations for Sex and Age, Journal of Vision 16(3): 5, 1–9.


Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2015) Low intensity TMS enhances perception of visual stimuli, Brain Stimulation 8, 1175-1182.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Mannion, D.J. (2015) Orientation decoding: sense in spirals? Neuroimage 110, 219-222.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y. & Watson, T.L. (2015) A Bayesian approach to person perception, Consciousness & Cognition 36, 406-413.

Florey, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Dakin, S. & Mareschal, I. (2015) Peripheral Processing of Gaze Perception, JEP: HPP 41, 1084-1094.

Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Orientation anisotropies in human primary visual cortex depend on contrast, Neuroimage 119, 129-145.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Gaze constancy in upright and inverted faces, Journal of Vision 15(1): 21, 1-14.

Patten, M.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) A bias-free measure of the tilt illusion, Journal of Vision 15(15): 8, 1–14.

Spehar, B., Wong, S., van de Klundert, S., Lui, J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Taylor, R.P. (2015) Beauty and the Beholder: The Role of Visual Sensitivity in Visual Preference, Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9: 514, 1-12.

Vigano, G.J., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Transparent surface segregation enables visual feature binding in rapidly alternating displays, Journal of Vision 15(9): 14, 1-17. 


Adibi, M., McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2014) Population decoding in rat barrel cortex: optimizing the linear readout of correlated population responses, PLoS Computational Biology 10(1): e1003415. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003415, 1-14.108.

Arabzadeh, E., Clifford, C.W.G., Harris, J.A., Mahns, D.A., Macefield, V.G. & Birznieks, I. (2014) Single Tactile Afferents Outperform Human Subjects in a Vibrotactile Intensity Discrimination Task, Journal of Neurophysiology 112, 2382-2387.

Chen, T.T., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Determinants of the direction illusion: motion speed and dichoptic presentation interact to reveal systematic individual differences in sign, Journal of Vision 14(8): 14, 1–19.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) The Tilt Illusion: phenomenology and functional implications, Vision Research 104, 3-11.

Kingdom, F.A.J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Angelucci, A. (2014). The function of contextual modulation, Editorial to the Special Issue of Vision Research 104, 1-2.

Maloney, R.T., Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Determinants of motion response anisotropies in human visual cortex: the role of configuration and eccentricity, Neuroimage 100, 564-579.

Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) A generalized tendency towards direct gaze with uncertainty, Journal of Vision 14(12): 27, 1-9.

McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G., Solomon, S.S., Chen, S.C. & Solomon, S.G. (2014) Integration and segregation of multiple motion signals in area MT of primate, Journal of Neurophysiology 111, 369–378.

McKone, E., Jeffery, L., Boeing, A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (2014) Face identity after effects increase monotonically with adaptor extremity over, but not beyond, the range of natural faces, Vision Research 98, 1-13.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction, JEP: HPP 40, 1425-1439.

Stiel, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, I. (2014) Selective adaptation to vergent and averted eye gaze, Journal of Vision 14(1):15, 1–10.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014). The Wedding Cake Illusion: Interaction of Geometric and Photometric Factors in Induced Contrast and Assimilation, in Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions, eds. A. Shapiro and D. Todorovic, in press.

Vigano, G.J., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Motion-defined surface segregation in human visual cortex, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 26, 2479-2489.

Whittingham, K.M., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Synesthetes show normal sound-induced flash fission and fusion illusions, Vision Research 105, 1-9.


Adibi, M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2013) Informational basis of sensory adaptation: entropy and single spike efficiency in rat barrel cortex, Journal of Neuroscience 33, 14921-14926.

Adibi, M., McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2013) Adaptation improves neural coding efficiency despite increasing correlations in variability, Journal of Neuroscience 33, 2108 –2120.

Cheleski, D.J., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Eye gaze is not coded by cardinal mechanisms alone, Proc R Soc London B 280: 20131049, 1-7.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, I. (2013). Are you looking at me? Australasian Science, 34, 31-33.

Goddard, E. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) A new type of change blindness: Smooth, isoluminant colour changes are monitored on a coarse spatial scale, Journal of Vision 13(5): 20, 1–8.

Jun, Y.Y., Mareschal, I.M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Dadds, M.R. (2013) Cone of direct gaze as a marker of social anxiety in males, Psychiatry Research 210, 193-198.

Maloney, R.T., Lam, S.K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Colour misbinding during motion rivalry, Biology Letters 9: 20120899, 1-4.

Maloney, R.T., Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Human cortical and behavioral sensitivity to patterns of complex motion at eccentricity, Journal of Neurophysiology 110, 2545–2556.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Spatial structure of contextual modulation, Journal of Vision 13(6): 2, 1–9.

Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Humans have an expectation that gaze is directed towards them, Current Biology 23, 717-721.

Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J., Dadds, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Gaze categorization under uncertainty: psychophysics and modelling, Journal of Vision 13(5): 18, 1–10.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Goddard, E. (2012). Perceiving colour involves more than meets the eye, The Conversation, published on-line 27/4/2012.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Visual perception: knowing what to expect, Current Biology, 22, R223-R225.

Holcombe, A.O. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Failures to bind spatially coincident features: comment on Di Lollo, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 402.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Dynamics of unconscious contextual effects in orientation processing, PNAS 109, 7553-7558.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Perceptual entrainment of individually unambiguous motions, Journal of Vision 12 (1): 24, 1-8.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Don’t trust what you see, Australasian Science, 33, 32-33.

McDonald, J.S., Mannion, D.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Gain control in the response of human visual cortex to plaids, Journal of Neurophysiology 107, 2570-2580.

Seymour, K.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology 107, 2335-2341.


Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2011) Improving visual sensitivity with subthreshold Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 3290-3294.

Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Ruzzoli, M., Phillips, D., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2011) Matlab Library to Control Magstim Rapid2 Stimulator and a Method for Accurate and Rapid Estimation of Phosphene Thresholds (REPT), PLoS One, 6, e22342.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mannion, D.J., Seymour, K.J., McDonald, J.S. & Bartels, A. (2011). Are Coarse-Scale Orientation Maps Really Necessary for Orientation Decoding?, Journal of Neuroscience eLetter to the Editor published on-line 26/4/2011.

Goddard, E., Mannion, D.J., McDonald, J.S., Solomon, S.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Colour preference argues against a dorsal component of human V4, Journal of Vision 11(4): 3, 1–21.

Iyer, P.B., Freeman, A.W., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Rapid serial visual presentation of motion: short-term facilitation and long-term suppression, Journal of Vision 11(3): 16, 1–14.

Lawson, R.P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A.J. (2011) A Real Head Turner: Horizontal and Vertical Head Directions are Multichannel Coded, Journal of Vision 11(9): 17, 1-17.

Mannion, D.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Cortical and behavioral sensitivity to eccentric polar form, Journal of Vision 11(6): 17, 1–9.

Ruzzoli, M., Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Marzi, C.A., Miniussi, C. &Harris, J.A. (2011) The effect of TMS on visual motion sensitivity: an increase in neural noise or a decrease in signal strength? Journal of Neurophysiology, 106, 138-143.


Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Aftereffects, Encyclopedia of Perception, E.B. Goldstein (ed.), Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp.13-16.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Consciousness: reading the neural signature, Current Biology, 20, R61-R62.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Dynamics of visual feature binding, in Space & Time in Perception & Action, R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (eds.), Cambridge University Press, pp.199-215.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Q&A: Colin Clifford, Current Biology, 20, R427-R428.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Visual perception: ambiguity involving parietal cortex, Current Biology, 20, R813-R815.

Clifford, C.W.G., Harris, J.A. & Arabzadeh, E. (2010). Operating characteristics and awareness in New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness, E.K. Perry et al. (eds.), John Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp.103-111.

Goddard, E., Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S., Solomon, S. G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Combination of subcortical colour channels in human visual cortex, Journal of Vision, 10(5): 25, 1-17.

Goddard, E., Solomon, S.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Adaptable mechanisms sensitive to surface colour in human vision, Journal of Vision, 10(9): 17, 1-13.

Hietanen, M.A., Cloherty, S.L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2010) Differential changes in perceived contrast following contrast adaptation in humans, Vision Research, 50, 12-19.

Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Orientation anisotropies in human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology 103, 3465-3471.

Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S. & Clifford, C.W.G.  (2010) The influence of global form on local orientation anisotropies in human visual cortex, Neuroimage 52, 600-605.

McDonald, J.S., Mannion, D.J., Goddard E. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Orientation-selective chromatic mechanisms in human visual cortex, Journal of Vision, 10(12): 34, 1-12.

Rhodes, G., Watson, T.L., Jeffery, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Perceptual adaptation helps us identify faces, Vision Research 50, 963-968.

Seymour, K.J., Clifford, C.W.G., Logothetis, N.K. & Bartels, A. (2010) Coding and binding of colour and form in visual cortex, Cerebral Cortex, 20, 1946-1954.


Cass, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Alais D. & Spehar, B. (2009) Temporal structure of chromatic channels revealed through masking, Journal of Vision, 9(5),17, 1-15 .

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 19, R1022-R1023.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Inside the mind's eye, Australasian Science, 30, 20-21.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Visual motion processing, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, M.D. Binder et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 4316-4318.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mannion, D.J. & McDonald, J.S. (2009) Radial biases in the processing of motion and motion-defined contours by human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology, 102, 2974-2981.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2009) The hierarchy of directional interactions in visual motion processing, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 276, 263-268.

Lawson, R.P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A.J. (2009) About Turn: The Visual Representation of Human Body Orientation Revealed by Adaptation, Psychological Science, 20, 363-371.

Mannion, D.J., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Discrimination of the local orientation structure of spiral Glass patterns early in human visual cortex, Neuroimage, 46, 511-515.

McDonald, J.S., Seymour, K.J., Schira, M.M., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Orientation-specific contextual modulation of the fMRI BOLD response to luminance and chromatic gratings in human visual cortex, Vision Research, 49, 1397-1405.

Seymour, K.J., Clifford, C.W.G., Logothetis, N.K. & Bartels, A. (2009) The coding of color, motion and their conjunction in the human visual cortex, Current Biology, 19, 177-183.

Seymour, K.J., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Failure of colour and contrast polarity identification at threshold for detection of motion and global form, Vision Research, 49, 1592-1598.


Arabzadeh, E., Clifford, C.W.G. & Harris, J.A. (2008) Vision merges with touch in a purely tactile discrimination, Psychological Science, 19, 635-641.

Calder, A.J., Jenkins, R., Cassel, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2008) Visual representation of eye gaze is coded by a non-opponent multichannel system, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 244-261.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2008) Getting technical about awareness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 54-58.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2008) A good bet to measure awareness? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 210.

Crowder, N.A., Hietanen, M.A., Price, N.S.C., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2008) Dynamic contrast change produces rapid gain control in visual cortex, Journal of Physiology, 586, 4107-4119.

Goddard, E., Clifford, C.W.G. & Solomon, S.G. (2008) Centre-surround effects on perceived orientation in complex images, Vision Research, 48, 1374-1382.

Harris, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Miniussi, C. (2008) The functional effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation: signal suppression or neural noise generation? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 734-740.

Pearson, J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Tong, F. (2008) The functional impact of mental imagery on conscious perception, Current Biology, 18, 982-986.


Clifford, C.W.G., Webster M.A., Stanley, G.B., Stocker, A.A., Kohn, A., Sharpee, T.O. & Schwartz, O. (2007) Visual adaptation: neural, psychological and computational aspects, Vision Research, 47, 3125-3131.

Durant, S., Clifford, C.W.G., Crowder, N.A., Price, N.S.C. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2007) Characterizing contrast adaptation in a population of cat primary visual cortical neurons using Fisher information, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 24, 1529-1537.

Harris, J.A., Arabzadeh, E., Moore, C.A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2007) Non-informative vision causes adaptive changes in tactile sensitivity, Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 7136-7140.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Leopold, D.A. (2007) The timecourse of higher-level face after effects, Vision Research, 47, 2291-2296.


Badcock, D.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) The inputs to global form detection, in Seeing Spatial Form, M. Jenkins & L.R. Harris (eds.), Oxford University Press, pp.37-50.

Crowder, N.A., Price, N.S.C., Hietanen, M.A., Dreher, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2006) Relationship between contrast adaptation and orientation tuning in V1 and V2 of cat visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 271-283.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2006) The direction aftereffect is driven by adaptation of local motion detectors, Vision Research, 46, 4270-4278.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2006) New binary direction aftereffect does not add up, Journal of Vision, 6, 1451-1458.

Durant, S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Dynamics of the influence of segmentation cues on orientation perception, Vision Research, 46, 2934-2940.

Harris, J.A., Karlov, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Localization of tactile stimuli depends on conscious detection, Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 948-952.

Verbeek, E., Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Determinants of range effects in face recognition, Learning & Behaviour, 34, 229-240.

Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Orientation dependence of the orientation contingent face after effect, Vision Research, 46, 3422-3429.


Badcock, D.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Khuu, S.K. (2005) Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection, Vision Research, 45, 881-889.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Functional ideas about adaptation applied to spatial and motion vision, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 47-82.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Harris, J.A. (2005) Contextual modulation outside of awareness, Current Biology, 15, 574-578.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (eds.) (2005). Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (2005) Introduction: Fitting the Mind to the World, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 1-13.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Weston, E. (2005) Aftereffect of adaptation to Glass patterns, Vision Research, 45, 1355-1363.

Forte, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Interocular transfer of the tilt illusion shows that monocular orientation mechanisms are colour selective, Vision Research, 45, 2715-2721.

Holcombe, A.O., Clifford, C.W.G., Eagleman, D.E. & Pakarian, P. (2005) Illusory motion reversal in tune with motion detectors, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 559-560.

Ma-Wyatt, A.M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2005) Contrast configuration affects grouping in apparent motion, Perception, 34, 669-685.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Mechanisms selectively engaged in rivalry: normal vision habituates, rivalrous vision primes, Vision Research, 45, 707-714.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) When your brain decides what you see: grouping across monocular, binocular and stimulus rivalry, Psychological Science, 16, 516-519.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Suppressed patterns alter vision during binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 15, 2142-2148.

Rhodes, G., Robbins, R., Jaquet, E., McKone, E., Jeffery, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Adaptation and face perception – how aftereffects implicate norm based coding of faces, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 213-240.

Taylor, R.P, Newell, B., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Fractals: a resonance between Art and Nature, in Visual Perfection: Mathematics & Creativity (ed. M. Emmer), Springer, pp.53-64.

Taylor, R.P., Spehar, B., Wise, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G., Newell, B.R., Hagerhall, C.M., Purcell, T. & Martin, T.P. (2005) Perceptual and physiological responses to the visual complexity of Pollock’s dripped fractal patterns, Non-linear Dynamics, Psychology & Life Sciences, 9, 89-114.


Clifford, C.W.G. (2004). Review of Mausfeld, R. & Heyer, D. (eds.) (2004) Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Perception, 33, 1399-1400.

Clifford, C.W.G., Holcombe, A.O. & Pearson, J. (2004) Rapid global form binding with loss of associated colours, Journal of Vision, 4, 1090-1101.

Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B. & Pearson, J. (2004) Motion transparency promotes synchronous perceptual binding, Vision Research, 44, 3073-3080.

Harris, J.A., Thein, T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Dissociating detection from localization of tactile stimuli, Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 3683-3693.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Determinants of visual awareness following interruptions during rivalry, Journal of Vision, 4, 196-202.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T.L., Jaquet, E., Winkler, C., & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Orientation-contingent face after effects and implications for face-coding mechanisms, Current Biology, 14, 2119-2123.

Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Peak shift but not range effects in recognition of faces, Learning & Motivation, 35, 221-241.

Watson, T.L., Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Perceptual grouping of biological motion promotes binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 14, 1670-1674.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2003) Fundamental mechanisms of visual motion detection: models, cells and functions, Progress in Neurobiology, 68, 409-437.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H. & Pearson, J. (2003) A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation, Vision Research, 43, 2245-2253.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H., Smith, S.T. & Pianta, M.J. (2003) Opposing views on orthogonal adaptation: a reply to Westheimer & Gee (2002), Vision Research, 43, 717-719.

Clifford, C.W.G., Pearson, J., Forte, J.D. & Spehar, B. (2003) Colour and luminance selectivity of spatial and temporal interactions in orientation perception, Vision Research, 43, 2885-2893.

Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B., Solomon, S.G., Martin, P.R. & Zaidi, Q. (2003) Interactions between colour and luminance in the perception of orientation, Journal of Vision, 3, 106-115.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T.L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Nakayama, K. (2003) Fitting the mind to the world: face adaptation and attractiveness aftereffects, Psychological Science, 14, 558-566.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2003) When does illusory contour formation depend on contrast polarity?, Vision Research, 43, 1915-1919.

Spehar, B., Clifford, C.W.G., Newell, B. & Taylor, R.P. (2003) Universal aesthetic of fractals, Computers & Graphics, 27, 813-820.

Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2003) Pulling faces: investigating the face distortion aftereffect, Perception, 32, 1109-1116.


Abbonizio, G., Langley, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Contrast adaptation may enhance contrast discrimination, Spatial Vision, 16, 45-58.

Arnold, D.H. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Determinants of asynchronous processing in vision, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 269, 579-583.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Perceptual adaptation: motion parallels orientation, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 136-143.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Response offset: the first sign of change?, Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 346.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Motion perception: tipping the microbalance?, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 66.

Peters, R.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Evans, C.S. (2002) Measuring the structure of dynamic visual signals, Animal Behaviour, 64, 131-146.

Spehar, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Agostini, T. (2002) Induction in variants of White's effect: common or separate mechanisms?, Perception, 30, 189-196.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Painting with light by Rob and Nick Carter: dramatic failures of colour constancy in articulated scenes, Perception, 30, 197-200.


Arnold, D.H., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Asynchronous processing in vision: colour leads motion, Current Biology, 11, 596-600.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Motion in the real world, Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 362.

Clifford, C.W.G., Ma Wyatt, A., Arnold, D. H., Smith, S. T. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Orthogonal adaptation improves orientation discrimination, Vision Research, 41, 151-159.

Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Characterising temporal delay filters in biological motion detectors, Vision Research, 41, 2311-2323 (erratum p.3943).

Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Interactions between On- and Off-signals in directional motion detectors feeding the nucleus of the optic tract of the wallaby, Journal of Neurophysiology, 86, 997-1005.

Smith, S.T., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Interaction between first- and second-order orientation channels revealed by the tilt illusion: psychophysics and computational modelling, Vision Research, 41, 1057-1071.

Taylor, R.P., Newell, B., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Fractals: a resonance between art and nature?, Symmetry: Art and Science, 1, 194-197.

Wenderoth, P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ma Wyatt, A. (2001) Hierarchy of spatial interactions in the processing of contrast-defined contours, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 18, 2190-2196.


Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H. & Wenderoth, P. (2000) Dissociable factors affect speed perception and discrimination, Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 28, 230-232.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2000) Response variability and information transfer in directional neurons of the mammalian horizontal optokinetic system, Visual Neuroscience 17, 207-215.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (2000) Recursive implementations of temporal filters for image motion computation, Biological Cybernetics, 82, 383-390.

Clifford, C.W.G., Wenderoth, P. & Spehar, B. (2000) A functional angle on some after-effects in cortical vision, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 267, 1705-1710.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) A computational model of selective deficits in first- and second-order motion processing, Vision Research, 39, 113-130.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) Anomalous perception of coherence and transparency in moving plaid patterns, Cognitive Brain Research, 8, 345-353.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (1999) Does cortical motion adaptation exhibit functional properties analogous to light adaptation in the retina?, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 27, 261-263.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (1999) Adaptation to temporal modulation can enhance differential speed sensitivity, Vision Research, 39, 4324-4332.

Clifford, C.W.G., Beardsley, S.A. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) The perception and discrimination of speed in complex motion, Vision Research, 39, 2213-2227.

Ibbotson, M.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mark, R.F. (1999) A quadratic nonlinearity underlies direction-selectivity in the nucleus of the optic tract, Visual Neuroscience 16, 991-1000.


Clifford, C.W.G., Freedman, J.N. & Vaina, L.M. (1998) First- and second-order motion perception in Gabor micropattern stimuli: psychophysics and computational modelling, Cognitive Brain Research, 6, 263-271.

Ibbotson, M.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mark, R.F. (1998) Adaptation to visual motion in the directional neurons of the nucleus of the optic tract, Journal of Neurophysiology, 79, 1481-1493.


Clifford, C.W.G., Ibbotson, M.R. & Langley, K. (1997) An adaptive Reichardt detector model of motion adaptation in insects and mammals, Visual Neuroscience, 14, 741-749.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (1996) A model of temporal adaptation in fly motion vision, Vision Research, 36, 2595-2608.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (1996) Psychophysics of motion adaptation parallels insect electrophysiology, Current Biology, 6, 1340-1342.


Clifford, C.W.G., Langley, K. & Fleet, D.J. (1995) Centre-frequency adaptive IIR temporal filters for phase-based image velocity estimation, Proc. 5th. IEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its applications, 173-177.

Johnston, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (1995) A unified account of three apparent motion illusions, Vision Research, 35, 1109-1123.

Johnston, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (1995) Perceived motion of contrast modulated gratings: predictions of the Multi-channel Gradient Model and the role of full-wave rectification, Vision Research, 35, 1771-1783.

Awards, Fellowships & Grants

2016 – 2018 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Perception of gaze, head and body direction, Clifford, C.W.G. ($285,969).

2015 – 2018 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Who are you expecting? Uncertainty and bias in high-level vision, Clifford, C.W.G. & Watson, T.L. ($395,000).

2015 – 2018 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Visual hallucinations: mechanistic biomarkers and novel treatments, Pearson, J., Lewis, S.J.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. ($448,000).

2015 Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Project, Facility for Experimental Human-Robot Interaction Research, Velonaki, M., Rye, D., Dissanayake, G., Faux, S., Pagnucco, A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ramos, F. ($350,000)

2012 – 2014 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Functional anisotropies in the processing of orientation and direction-of-motion by human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G. ($296,175).

2012 – 2014 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Gaze perception and adaptation, Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A. ($284,000).

2011 – 2015 Future Fellowship, Parallel and generative binding in human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G. ($931,000).

2010 Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Project, State-of-the-art upgrade to multi-transmit multi-receive technology for research dedicated 3 Tesla MRI scanner, Rae, C., Bilston, L.E., Clifford, C.W.G., Macefield, V.G., Simmons, R.A., Grunstein, R.R., Solo, V., Denson, T.F. & Hodges, J.R. (A$400,000).

2009 – 2013 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Lamb, T.D. et al. (A$7,500,000).

2009 – 2011 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Orientation-specific contextual modulation in human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B. & Breakspear, M. (A$279,250).

2009 – 2012 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Peripheral and central mechanisms of sensory coding and integration, Harris, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (A$445,000).

2007 – 2011 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Visual coding of motion and form, Clifford, C.W.G. (A$556,000).

2006 – 2008 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Interactions between vision and touch, Harris, J.A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$340,000).

2003 – 2004 Australian Research Council Linkage International Award, Complex Motion Processing in Primate Visual Cortex, Clifford, C.W.G., Ibbotson, M.R. & Mustari, M. (A$30,500).

2003 – 2005 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Using contextual effects to test theories of coding in visual cortex, Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$190,000).

2003 – 2005 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Contextual interactions in colour and form perception, Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$168,000).

2002 - 2006 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Processing and awareness in dynamic vision, Clifford, C.W.G. (A$570,000).

2000 - 2002 Australian Research Council Large Grant, Using adaptation to probe the mechanisms of orientation processing in the human visual system, Wenderoth, P. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$161,500).

1999 - 2001 Australian Research Council Large Grant, A functional role for motion adaptation, Wenderoth, P. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$115,000).