Professor Colin Clifford

Professor Colin Clifford

Professor Colin Clifford


PhD, University College London, 1994 - 1996
MSc, Sussex University, 1991 - 1992
MA, Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1985 - 1989

Contact details

Phone: 02 9385 1050
Email: Professor Colin Clifford
Fax: (02) 9385 3641

Office: Mathews 1013

Research Summary

The primary research focus of my laboratory is vision, how context affects our perception, and how our visual awareness might be related to the underlying neural processing.

Research Lab: Clifford Group



Florey, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Dakin, S. & Mareschal, I. (2016) Spatial limitations in averaging social cues, Scientific Reports 6, 32210: 1-12.

Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, D. (2016) Are you looking at me? How children’s gaze judgments improve with age, Developmental Psychology 52, 695-703.

Otsuka, Y., Ichikawa, H., Clifford, C.W.G., Kanazawa, S. & Yamaguchi, M.K. (2016) Wollaston’s Effect in Infants: Do Infants Integrate Eye and Head Information in Gaze Perception?, Journal of Vision 16(3): 4, 1–8.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2016) Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: linear combination of eye and head cues, Journal of Vision 16(8): 8, 1–12.

Pell, P.J., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J., von dem Hagen, E.A.H., Clifford, C.W.G., Baron-Cohen, S. & Ewbank, M.P. (2016) “Intact priors for gaze direction in autism spectrum conditions”, Molecular Autism 7: 25, 1-10.

Watson, T.L., Otsuka, Y. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2016) Who Are You Expecting? Biases in Face Perception Reveal Prior Expectations for Sex and Age, Journal of Vision 16(3): 5, 1–9.


Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2015) Low intensity TMS enhances perception of visual stimuli, Brain Stimulation 8, 1175-1182.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Mannion, D.J. (2015) Orientation decoding: sense in spirals? Neuroimage 110, 219-222.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y. & Watson, T.L. (2015) A Bayesian approach to person perception, Consciousness & Cognition 36, 406-413.

Florey, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Dakin, S. & Mareschal, I. (2015) Peripheral Processing of Gaze Perception, JEP: HPP 41, 1084-1094.

Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Orientation anisotropies in human primary visual cortex depend on contrast, Neuroimage 119, 129-145.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Gaze constancy in upright and inverted faces, Journal of Vision 15(1): 21, 1-14.

Patten, M.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) A bias-free measure of the tilt illusion, Journal of Vision 15(15): 8, 1–14.

Spehar, B., Wong, S., van de Klundert, S., Lui, J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Taylor, R.P. (2015) Beauty and the Beholder: The Role of Visual Sensitivity in Visual Preference, Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9: 514, 1-12.

Vigano, G.J., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2015) Transparent surface segregation enables visual feature binding in rapidly alternating displays, Journal of Vision 15(9): 14, 1-17. 


Adibi, M., McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2014) Population decoding in rat barrel cortex: optimizing the linear readout of correlated population responses, PLoS Computational Biology 10(1): e1003415. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003415, 1-14.108.

Arabzadeh, E., Clifford, C.W.G., Harris, J.A., Mahns, D.A., Macefield, V.G. & Birznieks, I. (2014) Single Tactile Afferents Outperform Human Subjects in a Vibrotactile Intensity Discrimination Task, Journal of Neurophysiology 112, 2382-2387.

Chen, T.T., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Determinants of the direction illusion: motion speed and dichoptic presentation interact to reveal systematic individual differences in sign, Journal of Vision 14(8): 14, 1–19.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) The Tilt Illusion: phenomenology and functional implications, Vision Research 104, 3-11.

Kingdom, F.A.J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Angelucci, A. (2014). The function of contextual modulation, Editorial to the Special Issue of Vision Research 104, 1-2.

Maloney, R.T., Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Determinants of motion response anisotropies in human visual cortex: the role of configuration and eccentricity, Neuroimage 100, 564-579.

Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) A generalized tendency towards direct gaze with uncertainty, Journal of Vision 14(12): 27, 1-9.

McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G., Solomon, S.S., Chen, S.C. & Solomon, S.G. (2014) Integration and segregation of multiple motion signals in area MT of primate, Journal of Neurophysiology 111, 369–378.

McKone, E., Jeffery, L., Boeing, A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (2014) Face identity after effects increase monotonically with adaptor extremity over, but not beyond, the range of natural faces, Vision Research 98, 1-13.

Otsuka, Y., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction, JEP: HPP 40, 1425-1439.

Stiel, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, I. (2014) Selective adaptation to vergent and averted eye gaze, Journal of Vision 14(1):15, 1–10.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014). The Wedding Cake Illusion: Interaction of Geometric and Photometric Factors in Induced Contrast and Assimilation, in Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions, eds. A. Shapiro and D. Todorovic, in press.

Vigano, G.J., Maloney, R.T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Motion-defined surface segregation in human visual cortex, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 26, 2479-2489.

Whittingham, K.M., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2014) Synesthetes show normal sound-induced flash fission and fusion illusions, Vision Research 105, 1-9.


Adibi, M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2013) Informational basis of sensory adaptation: entropy and single spike efficiency in rat barrel cortex, Journal of Neuroscience 33, 14921-14926.

Adibi, M., McDonald, J.S., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (2013) Adaptation improves neural coding efficiency despite increasing correlations in variability, Journal of Neuroscience 33, 2108 –2120.

Cheleski, D.J., Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Eye gaze is not coded by cardinal mechanisms alone, Proc R Soc London B 280: 20131049, 1-7.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Mareschal, I. (2013). Are you looking at me? Australasian Science, 34, 31-33.

Goddard, E. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) A new type of change blindness: Smooth, isoluminant colour changes are monitored on a coarse spatial scale, Journal of Vision 13(5): 20, 1–8.

Jun, Y.Y., Mareschal, I.M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Dadds, M.R. (2013) Cone of direct gaze as a marker of social anxiety in males, Psychiatry Research 210, 193-198.

Maloney, R.T., Lam, S.K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Colour misbinding during motion rivalry, Biology Letters 9: 20120899, 1-4.

Maloney, R.T., Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Human cortical and behavioral sensitivity to patterns of complex motion at eccentricity, Journal of Neurophysiology 110, 2545–2556.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Spatial structure of contextual modulation, Journal of Vision 13(6): 2, 1–9.

Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Humans have an expectation that gaze is directed towards them, Current Biology 23, 717-721.

Mareschal, I., Calder, A.J., Dadds, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2013) Gaze categorization under uncertainty: psychophysics and modelling, Journal of Vision 13(5): 18, 1–10.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Goddard, E. (2012). Perceiving colour involves more than meets the eye, The Conversation, published on-line 27/4/2012.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Visual perception: knowing what to expect, Current Biology, 22, R223-R225.

Holcombe, A.O. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Failures to bind spatially coincident features: comment on Di Lollo, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 402.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Dynamics of unconscious contextual effects in orientation processing, PNAS 109, 7553-7558.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Perceptual entrainment of individually unambiguous motions, Journal of Vision 12 (1): 24, 1-8.

Mareschal, I. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012). Don’t trust what you see, Australasian Science, 33, 32-33.

McDonald, J.S., Mannion, D.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Gain control in the response of human visual cortex to plaids, Journal of Neurophysiology 107, 2570-2580.

Seymour, K.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2012) Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology 107, 2335-2341.


Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2011) Improving visual sensitivity with subthreshold Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 3290-3294.

Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Ruzzoli, M., Phillips, D., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2011) Matlab Library to Control Magstim Rapid2 Stimulator and a Method for Accurate and Rapid Estimation of Phosphene Thresholds (REPT), PLoS One, 6, e22342.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mannion, D.J., Seymour, K.J., McDonald, J.S. & Bartels, A. (2011). Are Coarse-Scale Orientation Maps Really Necessary for Orientation Decoding?, Journal of Neuroscience eLetter to the Editor published on-line 26/4/2011.

Goddard, E., Mannion, D.J., McDonald, J.S., Solomon, S.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Colour preference argues against a dorsal component of human V4, Journal of Vision 11(4): 3, 1–21.

Iyer, P.B., Freeman, A.W., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Rapid serial visual presentation of motion: short-term facilitation and long-term suppression, Journal of Vision 11(3): 16, 1–14.

Lawson, R.P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A.J. (2011) A Real Head Turner: Horizontal and Vertical Head Directions are Multichannel Coded, Journal of Vision 11(9): 17, 1-17.

Mannion, D.J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2011) Cortical and behavioral sensitivity to eccentric polar form, Journal of Vision 11(6): 17, 1–9.

Ruzzoli, M., Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Marzi, C.A., Miniussi, C. &Harris, J.A. (2011) The effect of TMS on visual motion sensitivity: an increase in neural noise or a decrease in signal strength? Journal of Neurophysiology, 106, 138-143.


Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Aftereffects, Encyclopedia of Perception, E.B. Goldstein (ed.), Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp.13-16.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Consciousness: reading the neural signature, Current Biology, 20, R61-R62.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Dynamics of visual feature binding, in Space & Time in Perception & Action, R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (eds.), Cambridge University Press, pp.199-215.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Q&A: Colin Clifford, Current Biology, 20, R427-R428.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2010). Visual perception: ambiguity involving parietal cortex, Current Biology, 20, R813-R815.

Clifford, C.W.G., Harris, J.A. & Arabzadeh, E. (2010). Operating characteristics and awareness in New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness, E.K. Perry et al. (eds.), John Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp.103-111.

Goddard, E., Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S., Solomon, S. G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Combination of subcortical colour channels in human visual cortex, Journal of Vision, 10(5): 25, 1-17.

Goddard, E., Solomon, S.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Adaptable mechanisms sensitive to surface colour in human vision, Journal of Vision, 10(9): 17, 1-13.

Hietanen, M.A., Cloherty, S.L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2010) Differential changes in perceived contrast following contrast adaptation in humans, Vision Research, 50, 12-19.

Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Orientation anisotropies in human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology 103, 3465-3471.

Mannion, D. J., McDonald, J. S. & Clifford, C.W.G.  (2010) The influence of global form on local orientation anisotropies in human visual cortex, Neuroimage 52, 600-605.

McDonald, J.S., Mannion, D.J., Goddard E. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Orientation-selective chromatic mechanisms in human visual cortex, Journal of Vision, 10(12): 34, 1-12.

Rhodes, G., Watson, T.L., Jeffery, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2010) Perceptual adaptation helps us identify faces, Vision Research 50, 963-968.

Seymour, K.J., Clifford, C.W.G., Logothetis, N.K. & Bartels, A. (2010) Coding and binding of colour and form in visual cortex, Cerebral Cortex, 20, 1946-1954.


Cass, J., Clifford, C.W.G., Alais D. & Spehar, B. (2009) Temporal structure of chromatic channels revealed through masking, Journal of Vision, 9(5),17, 1-15 .

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 19, R1022-R1023.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Inside the mind's eye, Australasian Science, 30, 20-21.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Visual motion processing, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, M.D. Binder et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 4316-4318.

Clifford, C.W.G., Mannion, D.J. & McDonald, J.S. (2009) Radial biases in the processing of motion and motion-defined contours by human visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology, 102, 2974-2981.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2009) The hierarchy of directional interactions in visual motion processing, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 276, 263-268.

Lawson, R.P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A.J. (2009) About Turn: The Visual Representation of Human Body Orientation Revealed by Adaptation, Psychological Science, 20, 363-371.

Mannion, D.J., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Discrimination of the local orientation structure of spiral Glass patterns early in human visual cortex, Neuroimage, 46, 511-515.

McDonald, J.S., Seymour, K.J., Schira, M.M., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Orientation-specific contextual modulation of the fMRI BOLD response to luminance and chromatic gratings in human visual cortex, Vision Research, 49, 1397-1405.

Seymour, K.J., Clifford, C.W.G., Logothetis, N.K. & Bartels, A. (2009) The coding of color, motion and their conjunction in the human visual cortex, Current Biology, 19, 177-183.

Seymour, K.J., McDonald, J.S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2009) Failure of colour and contrast polarity identification at threshold for detection of motion and global form, Vision Research, 49, 1592-1598.


Arabzadeh, E., Clifford, C.W.G. & Harris, J.A. (2008) Vision merges with touch in a purely tactile discrimination, Psychological Science, 19, 635-641.

Calder, A.J., Jenkins, R., Cassel, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2008) Visual representation of eye gaze is coded by a non-opponent multichannel system, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 244-261.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2008) Getting technical about awareness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 54-58.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arabzadeh, E. & Harris, J.A. (2008) A good bet to measure awareness? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 210.

Crowder, N.A., Hietanen, M.A., Price, N.S.C., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2008) Dynamic contrast change produces rapid gain control in visual cortex, Journal of Physiology, 586, 4107-4119.

Goddard, E., Clifford, C.W.G. & Solomon, S.G. (2008) Centre-surround effects on perceived orientation in complex images, Vision Research, 48, 1374-1382.

Harris, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Miniussi, C. (2008) The functional effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation: signal suppression or neural noise generation? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 734-740.

Pearson, J., Clifford, C.W.G. & Tong, F. (2008) The functional impact of mental imagery on conscious perception, Current Biology, 18, 982-986.


Clifford, C.W.G., Webster M.A., Stanley, G.B., Stocker, A.A., Kohn, A., Sharpee, T.O. & Schwartz, O. (2007) Visual adaptation: neural, psychological and computational aspects, Vision Research, 47, 3125-3131.

Durant, S., Clifford, C.W.G., Crowder, N.A., Price, N.S.C. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2007) Characterizing contrast adaptation in a population of cat primary visual cortical neurons using Fisher information, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 24, 1529-1537.

Harris, J.A., Arabzadeh, E., Moore, C.A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2007) Non-informative vision causes adaptive changes in tactile sensitivity, Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 7136-7140.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Leopold, D.A. (2007) The timecourse of higher-level face after effects, Vision Research, 47, 2291-2296.


Badcock, D.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) The inputs to global form detection, in Seeing Spatial Form, M. Jenkins & L.R. Harris (eds.), Oxford University Press, pp.37-50.

Crowder, N.A., Price, N.S.C., Hietanen, M.A., Dreher, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2006) Relationship between contrast adaptation and orientation tuning in V1 and V2 of cat visual cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 271-283.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2006) The direction aftereffect is driven by adaptation of local motion detectors, Vision Research, 46, 4270-4278.

Curran, W., Clifford, C.W.G. & Benton, C.P. (2006) New binary direction aftereffect does not add up, Journal of Vision, 6, 1451-1458.

Durant, S. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Dynamics of the influence of segmentation cues on orientation perception, Vision Research, 46, 2934-2940.

Harris, J.A., Karlov, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Localization of tactile stimuli depends on conscious detection, Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 948-952.

Verbeek, E., Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Determinants of range effects in face recognition, Learning & Behaviour, 34, 229-240.

Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2006) Orientation dependence of the orientation contingent face after effect, Vision Research, 46, 3422-3429.


Badcock, D.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Khuu, S.K. (2005) Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection, Vision Research, 45, 881-889.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Functional ideas about adaptation applied to spatial and motion vision, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 47-82.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Harris, J.A. (2005) Contextual modulation outside of awareness, Current Biology, 15, 574-578.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (eds.) (2005). Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Rhodes, G. (2005) Introduction: Fitting the Mind to the World, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 1-13.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Weston, E. (2005) Aftereffect of adaptation to Glass patterns, Vision Research, 45, 1355-1363.

Forte, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Interocular transfer of the tilt illusion shows that monocular orientation mechanisms are colour selective, Vision Research, 45, 2715-2721.

Holcombe, A.O., Clifford, C.W.G., Eagleman, D.E. & Pakarian, P. (2005) Illusory motion reversal in tune with motion detectors, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 559-560.

Ma-Wyatt, A.M., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2005) Contrast configuration affects grouping in apparent motion, Perception, 34, 669-685.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Mechanisms selectively engaged in rivalry: normal vision habituates, rivalrous vision primes, Vision Research, 45, 707-714.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) When your brain decides what you see: grouping across monocular, binocular and stimulus rivalry, Psychological Science, 16, 516-519.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Suppressed patterns alter vision during binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 15, 2142-2148.

Rhodes, G., Robbins, R., Jaquet, E., McKone, E., Jeffery, L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Adaptation and face perception – how aftereffects implicate norm based coding of faces, in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision, C.W.G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford University Press, 213-240.

Taylor, R.P, Newell, B., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2005) Fractals: a resonance between Art and Nature, in Visual Perfection: Mathematics & Creativity (ed. M. Emmer), Springer, pp.53-64.

Taylor, R.P., Spehar, B., Wise, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G., Newell, B.R., Hagerhall, C.M., Purcell, T. & Martin, T.P. (2005) Perceptual and physiological responses to the visual complexity of Pollock’s dripped fractal patterns, Non-linear Dynamics, Psychology & Life Sciences, 9, 89-114.


Clifford, C.W.G. (2004). Review of Mausfeld, R. & Heyer, D. (eds.) (2004) Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Perception, 33, 1399-1400.

Clifford, C.W.G., Holcombe, A.O. & Pearson, J. (2004) Rapid global form binding with loss of associated colours, Journal of Vision, 4, 1090-1101.

Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B. & Pearson, J. (2004) Motion transparency promotes synchronous perceptual binding, Vision Research, 44, 3073-3080.

Harris, J.A., Thein, T. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Dissociating detection from localization of tactile stimuli, Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 3683-3693.

Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Determinants of visual awareness following interruptions during rivalry, Journal of Vision, 4, 196-202.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T.L., Jaquet, E., Winkler, C., & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Orientation-contingent face after effects and implications for face-coding mechanisms, Current Biology, 14, 2119-2123.

Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Peak shift but not range effects in recognition of faces, Learning & Motivation, 35, 221-241.

Watson, T.L., Pearson, J. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2004) Perceptual grouping of biological motion promotes binocular rivalry, Current Biology, 14, 1670-1674.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2003) Fundamental mechanisms of visual motion detection: models, cells and functions, Progress in Neurobiology, 68, 409-437.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H. & Pearson, J. (2003) A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation, Vision Research, 43, 2245-2253.

Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H., Smith, S.T. & Pianta, M.J. (2003) Opposing views on orthogonal adaptation: a reply to Westheimer & Gee (2002), Vision Research, 43, 717-719.

Clifford, C.W.G., Pearson, J., Forte, J.D. & Spehar, B. (2003) Colour and luminance selectivity of spatial and temporal interactions in orientation perception, Vision Research, 43, 2885-2893.

Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B., Solomon, S.G., Martin, P.R. & Zaidi, Q. (2003) Interactions between colour and luminance in the perception of orientation, Journal of Vision, 3, 106-115.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T.L., Clifford, C.W.G. & Nakayama, K. (2003) Fitting the mind to the world: face adaptation and attractiveness aftereffects, Psychological Science, 14, 558-566.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2003) When does illusory contour formation depend on contrast polarity?, Vision Research, 43, 1915-1919.

Spehar, B., Clifford, C.W.G., Newell, B. & Taylor, R.P. (2003) Universal aesthetic of fractals, Computers & Graphics, 27, 813-820.

Watson, T.L. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2003) Pulling faces: investigating the face distortion aftereffect, Perception, 32, 1109-1116.


Abbonizio, G., Langley, K. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Contrast adaptation may enhance contrast discrimination, Spatial Vision, 16, 45-58.

Arnold, D.H. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Determinants of asynchronous processing in vision, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 269, 579-583.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Perceptual adaptation: motion parallels orientation, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 136-143.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Response offset: the first sign of change?, Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 346.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Motion perception: tipping the microbalance?, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 66.

Peters, R.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Evans, C.S. (2002) Measuring the structure of dynamic visual signals, Animal Behaviour, 64, 131-146.

Spehar, B., Clifford, C.W.G. & Agostini, T. (2002) Induction in variants of White's effect: common or separate mechanisms?, Perception, 30, 189-196.

Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2002) Painting with light by Rob and Nick Carter: dramatic failures of colour constancy in articulated scenes, Perception, 30, 197-200.


Arnold, D.H., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Asynchronous processing in vision: colour leads motion, Current Biology, 11, 596-600.

Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Motion in the real world, Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 362.

Clifford, C.W.G., Ma Wyatt, A., Arnold, D. H., Smith, S. T. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Orthogonal adaptation improves orientation discrimination, Vision Research, 41, 151-159.

Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Characterising temporal delay filters in biological motion detectors, Vision Research, 41, 2311-2323 (erratum p.3943).

Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Interactions between On- and Off-signals in directional motion detectors feeding the nucleus of the optic tract of the wallaby, Journal of Neurophysiology, 86, 997-1005.

Smith, S.T., Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (2001) Interaction between first- and second-order orientation channels revealed by the tilt illusion: psychophysics and computational modelling, Vision Research, 41, 1057-1071.

Taylor, R.P., Newell, B., Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (2001) Fractals: a resonance between art and nature?, Symmetry: Art and Science, 1, 194-197.

Wenderoth, P., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ma Wyatt, A. (2001) Hierarchy of spatial interactions in the processing of contrast-defined contours, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 18, 2190-2196.


Clifford, C.W.G., Arnold, D.H. & Wenderoth, P. (2000) Dissociable factors affect speed perception and discrimination, Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 28, 230-232.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Ibbotson, M.R. (2000) Response variability and information transfer in directional neurons of the mammalian horizontal optokinetic system, Visual Neuroscience 17, 207-215.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (2000) Recursive implementations of temporal filters for image motion computation, Biological Cybernetics, 82, 383-390.

Clifford, C.W.G., Wenderoth, P. & Spehar, B. (2000) A functional angle on some after-effects in cortical vision, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 267, 1705-1710.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) A computational model of selective deficits in first- and second-order motion processing, Vision Research, 39, 113-130.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) Anomalous perception of coherence and transparency in moving plaid patterns, Cognitive Brain Research, 8, 345-353.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (1999) Does cortical motion adaptation exhibit functional properties analogous to light adaptation in the retina?, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 27, 261-263.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Wenderoth, P. (1999) Adaptation to temporal modulation can enhance differential speed sensitivity, Vision Research, 39, 4324-4332.

Clifford, C.W.G., Beardsley, S.A. & Vaina, L.M. (1999) The perception and discrimination of speed in complex motion, Vision Research, 39, 2213-2227.

Ibbotson, M.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mark, R.F. (1999) A quadratic nonlinearity underlies direction-selectivity in the nucleus of the optic tract, Visual Neuroscience 16, 991-1000.


Clifford, C.W.G., Freedman, J.N. & Vaina, L.M. (1998) First- and second-order motion perception in Gabor micropattern stimuli: psychophysics and computational modelling, Cognitive Brain Research, 6, 263-271.

Ibbotson, M.R., Clifford, C.W.G. & Mark, R.F. (1998) Adaptation to visual motion in the directional neurons of the nucleus of the optic tract, Journal of Neurophysiology, 79, 1481-1493.


Clifford, C.W.G., Ibbotson, M.R. & Langley, K. (1997) An adaptive Reichardt detector model of motion adaptation in insects and mammals, Visual Neuroscience, 14, 741-749.


Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (1996) A model of temporal adaptation in fly motion vision, Vision Research, 36, 2595-2608.

Clifford, C.W.G. & Langley, K. (1996) Psychophysics of motion adaptation parallels insect electrophysiology, Current Biology, 6, 1340-1342.


Clifford, C.W.G., Langley, K. & Fleet, D.J. (1995) Centre-frequency adaptive IIR temporal filters for phase-based image velocity estimation, Proc. 5th. IEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its applications, 173-177.

Johnston, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (1995) A unified account of three apparent motion illusions, Vision Research, 35, 1109-1123.

Johnston, A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (1995) Perceived motion of contrast modulated gratings: predictions of the Multi-channel Gradient Model and the role of full-wave rectification, Vision Research, 35, 1771-1783.

Awards, Fellowships & Grants

2016 – 2018 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Perception of gaze, head and body direction, Clifford, C.W.G. ($285,969).

2015 – 2018 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Who are you expecting? Uncertainty and bias in high-level vision, Clifford, C.W.G. & Watson, T.L. ($395,000).

2015 – 2018 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Visual hallucinations: mechanistic biomarkers and novel treatments, Pearson, J., Lewis, S.J.G. & Clifford, C.W.G. ($448,000).

2015 Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Project, Facility for Experimental Human-Robot Interaction Research, Velonaki, M., Rye, D., Dissanayake, G., Faux, S., Pagnucco, A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Ramos, F. ($350,000)

2012 – 2014 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Functional anisotropies in the processing of orientation and direction-of-motion by human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G. ($296,175).

2012 – 2014 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Gaze perception and adaptation, Clifford, C.W.G. & Calder, A. ($284,000).

2011 – 2015 Future Fellowship, Parallel and generative binding in human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G. ($931,000).

2010 Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Project, State-of-the-art upgrade to multi-transmit multi-receive technology for research dedicated 3 Tesla MRI scanner, Rae, C., Bilston, L.E., Clifford, C.W.G., Macefield, V.G., Simmons, R.A., Grunstein, R.R., Solo, V., Denson, T.F. & Hodges, J.R. (A$400,000).

2009 – 2013 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Lamb, T.D. et al. (A$7,500,000).

2009 – 2011 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Orientation-specific contextual modulation in human visual cortex, Clifford, C.W.G., Spehar, B. & Breakspear, M. (A$279,250).

2009 – 2012 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Peripheral and central mechanisms of sensory coding and integration, Harris, J.A., Clifford, C.W.G. & Arabzadeh, E. (A$445,000).

2007 – 2011 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Visual coding of motion and form, Clifford, C.W.G. (A$556,000).

2006 – 2008 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Interactions between vision and touch, Harris, J.A. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$340,000).

2003 – 2004 Australian Research Council Linkage International Award, Complex Motion Processing in Primate Visual Cortex, Clifford, C.W.G., Ibbotson, M.R. & Mustari, M. (A$30,500).

2003 – 2005 National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant, Using contextual effects to test theories of coding in visual cortex, Ibbotson, M.R. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$190,000).

2003 – 2005 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Contextual interactions in colour and form perception, Spehar, B. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$168,000).

2002 - 2006 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant, Processing and awareness in dynamic vision, Clifford, C.W.G. (A$570,000).

2000 - 2002 Australian Research Council Large Grant, Using adaptation to probe the mechanisms of orientation processing in the human visual system, Wenderoth, P. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$161,500).

1999 - 2001 Australian Research Council Large Grant, A functional role for motion adaptation, Wenderoth, P. & Clifford, C.W.G. (A$115,000).